Agron. Source: 2015 Pioneer Brand Concentration Survey. Narrower rows spacings are likely to provide a greater yield benefit in systems where soybeans have a limited time frame for vegetative growth prior to flowering. Most research suggests that drilled or 15-inch row spacing, compared to 30-inch rows, tends to yield better over time. For instance, if you live in central Minnesota and originally planted a RM 1.7 variety, by about June 10 switch to an early group I soybean (such as a … Bertram, M.G., and P. Pedersen. Shaner, J.B. Santini. Agron. Harville. 2150 Beardshear Hall Munkvold. Reducing row widths to increase yield: Why it does not always work. For soybeans planted on droughty … Many farm operations have a corn and soybean planter running simultaneously. 100:1488-1492. Generally, there is not much yield difference between 7.5-inch and 15-inch row spacing. Iowa State Univ. Row spacing in soybean. As a result, soybeans planted in 15-inch rows have gained in popularity as a way to capture some of the yield benefit of drilled narrow rows while using a planter instead of a drill. Planting soybeans has gone from 30-inch rows to 7.5-inch rows with a drill back to 15-inch rows with a planter. Average across the last two years of research and 17 experiments we have seen 4.6 bu/ acre advantage of 15 inch over 30 inch row spacing. At high yielding sites narrow row spacing increased yields; however, when there is a lot of stress on the soybean plant and the yield potential is low, narrow rows do not always provide the same kind of a yield advantage. With late planting, narrower row spacing is generally recommended. Pioneer Crop Insights. In many cases, this decline in drilled soybeans has been accompanied by an increase in acres planted to 15-inch rows, which is now the most common row spacing for soybean. These results show that (i) late planting of soybean on clay soil in either row spacing used will result in significant yield decline even with irrigation, (ii) nonirrigated production of soybean on clay soil is risky, and (iii) choice of row spacing is not as important a consideration as is the alleviation of drought stress … 2008. 103:1712-1716. Row-spacing and seeding rate effects on glyphosate-resistant soybean for Mid-Atlantic production systems. The rationale behind increasing row spacing is to increase light penetration and air movement in the lower canopy, thereby making conditions less favorable for white mold development. Actual yield loss due to wheel traffic will vary according to boom width (Table 2). Factors such as equipment costs, workload management, planting and harvest efficiency, and weed and disease control can all influence the economic viability of narrow-row soybeans. Locations, years, row spacings, and average yields of soybean row spacing studies summarized in Figure 1. 94:603-611. If a producer wants to keep the population the same while decreasing row spacing, it is necessary to reduce the number of seeds or plants per foot of row. The increasing width of planters means that splitting rows with additional units makes planters very heavy. However, acreage planted to 30-inch rows has also increased in almost all regions of North America over the last several years, reversing the long-term trend away from wider rows. Soybeans have a similar growth habit to bush beans, so there’s no caging or staking required. Glyphosate-resistant soybean management system effect on Sclerotinia stem rot. The final characteristics of a soybean plant are variable, with factors such as genetics, soil quality, and climate affecting its form; however, fully mature soybean plants are generally between 51–127 cm (20–50 in) in height and have rooting depths between 76–152 cm (30–60 in). 2Purdue Extension recommends row spacing between 7.5 and 15 inches for maximum soybean yield. Crop residue can be an important consideration when planting soybeans, particularly in the northern Corn Belt where residue management is more of a challenge. Extension. University research has shown that final soybean stands of 100,000 plants/acre can maximize yield potential and profitability. Even in Iowa, there is good evidence that narrow rows (less than 30 inch) will produce higher yield than wider rows (30 inches or greater). Crop Sci. It is important to recognize that row spacing is influenced by the field environment. Drilled soybeans have declined from 20% of soybean acres in 2011 to 14% in 2015 (Figure 4). S.M., S.Z. When an application is made during vegetative growth, plants are generally able to compensate for damage caused by the sprayer wheels with little reduction in yield. Brown stem rot, white mold, nitrogen stress, soybean cyst nematode, and Sudden death syndrome may also tend to negate the benefit of narrow rows (Cooper and Jeffers, 1984; Pedersen and Lauer, 2003; Swoboda et al., 2011). Soybean response to zone tillage, twin-row planting, and row spacing. Equipment and workload considerations are unique for every farm operation and ultimately come down to the needs of each individual grower. Although 30-inch rows would generally be expected to allow sprayer wheels to pass through without damage, wheel traffic damage may not always be negligible. J. Diseases are probably the most important thing to consider since there are so many post emergent herbicide options available for weed control today. In recent years, however, drilled soybeans have fallen out of favor in many areas, likely due to inferior seed placement and singulation capabilities of drills vs. planters, and the cost of planting additional seeds. Â© 2020 Corteva. We prefer the planter for a number of … 2006. Board, J.E., and B.G. Two Nebraska On-Farm … Weed Science. Foliar Fungicide and Insecticide Applications. 1: Hanna et al., 2008; 2: De Bruin and Pedersen, 2008; 3: Kratchovil et al., 2004; 4: Cox and Cherney, 2011; 5: Janovicek et al., 2006; 6: Bertram and Pedersen, 2004; 7: Pedersen and Lauer, 2003. ISU Extension and Outreach Soybean plantings after June 20 in central/western NY and after June 10 in NNY can be risky, even with Group 0 varieties, especially if the remaining part of the growing season is cool or if frost occurs before October 1. Pedersen, P., and J.G. The paper presents the effect of planting density and row spacing on the growth, development and yield of soybean, cv. Larson, D.M. Holshouser, D.L., R.D. Rather, each grower should carefully consider the costs, risks and benefits of soybean row spacing options in their farming operation. The question surrounding row spacing is âWill the increase in yield pay for the cost of replacing or altering the planter to plant in narrow row spacing?â. Ideal seed depth for most conditions is 1¼ to 1½ inches, but beans can be planted up to 2 inches deep in sandy soils, … 54:38-46. 98:800-807. The study’s average early season (2 to 4 weeks after planting) established soybean stand was 130,500 plants/acre with the planting rate of 150,000 pls/acre and 163,800 plants/acre with 200,000 pls/acre. Planters generally provide better seed placement and seedling emergence than drills, which has helped reduce seeding rates and associated costs, although improvements in seed placement with newer drills make this less of an issue than it has been in the past (Holshouser et al., 2006). Cold and cloudy conditions in combination with high rainfall during flowering are optimal for pathogen infection. White mold development is favored by cool and wet conditions during soybean flowering. Soybean row spacing preferences vary greatly across the Midwestern U.S. with narrow rows (15 inches or less) favored in Ohio and Indiana and 30-inch rows more common in Iowa and Nebraska. Figure 4. 3. In most cases, there is no difference between 7.5, 10, 15, or 20 inch row spacing and anything less than 30 inch is therefore consider narrow row spacing. J. of Missouri-Columbia Extension. In Ohio, most soybeans are planted in row widths ≤ 15 inches. Figure 3.Â Soybean row spacings (in inches) in the largest soybean-producing states in 2015 as a percent of total acres (USDA-NASS, 2015 Crop Production Survey). Three planting densities were applied (70, 90 and 110 seeds per 1 m 2) with two row spacing (16 and 32 cm), in 4 replications. A study conducted in 2008-2009 (Cox and Cherney, 2011) found no row spacing by seeding rate interaction for soybeans planted in 7.5-inch, 15- inch, and 30-inch spacings. For that reason, it is important to consider the effect of row spacing on spray coverage. Minor, H.C., and W.J. In general, studies have found that soybean yield potential is often greater with row spacings narrower than 30 inches. Recommended soybean seeding rates in Minnesota. Kelly. We have moved away from drilling soybeans in favor of planting. Water the beans once they’ve been planted, but only until the soil is moist. The more even distribution of plants in narrow rows also allows plants to feed into the combine head more smoothly, although some growers have found that harvesting 30-inch row soybeans at an angle can help improve harvestability. Agron. 1,2,3 In less productive fields or low-producing areas within fields, the final stand may need to be around 135,000 plants/acre. Similarly, 22-inch rows are common in sugar beet producing areas such as Minnesota, but are not generally found elsewhere. Taking stand counts using the traditional method above can be arduous if soybeans are planted in narrow rows, so an alternative method may be more conducive to quickly getting stand count estimates. Use of nitrogen stress to demonstrate the effect of yield limiting factors on the yield response of soybean to narrow row systems. Agron. J. In 2004, an extensive research project funded through the check-off and the Iowa Soybean Association was initiated to investigate the advantage of using 15 inch row spacing versus 30 inch row spacing in Iowa. Agron. Another option â owning a second planter specifically for soybeans â allows both crops to be planted at the same time, resulting in earlier completion of soybean planting. Fawcett, Jim; Sievers, Josh; Rossiter, Lyle; and Rogers, Jim, On-Farm Soybean Row Spacing Trials. If you’re using the square foot gardening method, plant 9 per square foot. No such trend has been consistently observed in soybean when planting at optimum timings, although narrow rows have proven advantageous with late planting regardless of latitude (Lee, 2006). The extent of this effect will vary by weed species and weed emergence timing relative to the crop (Hock et al., 2006). Figure 1.Â Average yield results from ten soybean row spacing studies published during the last 15 years. Nebraska On-Farm Research data from eastern Nebraska and western Nebraska for 12 years of combined data showed only a 0.6 bu/ac yield increase when seeding 180,000 soybean seeds/acre compared to 120,000 seeds/acre in 15-inch or 30-inch rows. Plant soybeans as early as possible after April 25 as soil conditions permit; if possible, complete planting by May 20. … Recent research studies have around a 4 bu/acre yield advantage for soybeans planted in drilled narrow rows or 15-inch rows compared to 30-inch rows. Butzen, S., and S. Paszkiewicz. Opting not to split large planters means that both corn and soybeans are typically … Corn and soybean response to rotation sequence, row spacing, and tillage system. 100:704-710. J. The later in the growing season soybeans are planted, the greater the yield increase due to narrow rows. To close the canopy sooner, you may want to consider planting narrower than 30 inches. Weed Technol. (No studies in sandy soils). C.D. Soybean Planting Rates The suggested soybean planting rates and final stands for different row spacings are provided in Table 4. C.D., K.A. Agron. While soybeans planted in a 15-inch row spacing can generally out-yield soybeans planted in a 30-inch row spacing, disease levels in a 15-inch row spacing can often be high enough that little yield advantage over the 30-inch row spacing might be observed in a high white mold environment. Knezevic, A.R. J. Soybeans grow best where the daytime temperature averages between 60°F and 70°F (16-21°C). Holshouser, D.L., and J.P. Whittaker. Uniform stand and narrow rows are needed for higher double-crop soybean yield. Crop Management doi:10.1094/CM-2006-0417-01-RS. Once the fungus is present in a field, little can be done to remove the pathogen and management practices to lessen the impact of the fungus must be implemented. Wheat-soybean double crop management in Missouri. Among the largest soybean-producing states there are substantial differences in row spacing practices, with a majority of growers in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Missouri favoring 15-inch spacings, compared to Iowa and Minnesota where soybeans planted in 30-inch rows are much more common (Figure 3). Fungicide application timing and row spacing effect on soybean canopy penetration and grain yield. The minimum stand for maximizing soybean yields, and factors that affect this. 2003. Lambert, D.M., and J. Lowenberg-DeBoer. Double crop soybeans should be produced in narrow rows- 7.5 or 15-inch row spacing. Row width is one of the management practices most often considered by growers as potentially important to increased soybean yields and profits. 76:257-259. Swoboda, C.M., P. Pedersen, P.D. Table 1. Soybean variety selection, row spacing and seeding rate are important factors influencing white mold development and a good management strategy should address all three. It is not uncommon to see 20-inch, 15-inch, 10-inch, or sometimes even 7.5-inch row spacing soybean in Iowa. Conley, G.E. However, row spacing practices vary widely across different areas. The data available for row spacing from the past twenty years is fairly consistent for Midwest production areas and indicates that narrower row spacing does improve yield. A wide range of row spacings have been used successfully in soybean production. 2008. A fact sheet can be downloaded (pdf file) on soybean row spacing. Drilled soybeans, in row spacings of 12 inches or less, account for less than 20% of total acreage. 96:462-468. 96:1029-1038. In some areas this increase has been substantial. Conditions that may not favor narrow rows. In light of these findings, seed cost may not be a requisite consideration for row spacing decisions. Soybean row spacing preferences vary greatly across the Midwestern U.S. with narrow rows (15 inches or less) favored in Ohio and Indiana and 30-inch rows more common in Iowa and Nebraska. Harrison, Jr. 2004. Univ. 2008. Narrow rows have a yield advantage because they decrease the time to canopy closure and intercept more light throughout the season. doi:10.1094/CM-2008-0317-02-RS. The move toward narrow row spacing is therefore increasing in popularity in Iowa. In general, weed growth will be reduced in soybeans planted in narrower row spacings and earlier shading by the soybean canopy will help suppress the emergence of new weeds. Planting date. A higher soybean plant population produces a thicker soybean canopy early in the season when weed control is critical. 2004. Plant soybeans in late winter in warm-winter regions. We will continue the research in 2006. Holshouser, D.L., and R.D. Because the longest day of the year occurs on June 21, and all days get shorter after that, soybeans need as much sunlight as possible to make pods, seed, and yield. Crop Management doi:10.1094/CM-2006-0227-04-RV. However, in areas with frequent white mold incidence, wide rows may provide some benefit. Kratchovil, R.J., J.T. Walker. We typically see a yield advantage, however, for soybeans in rows 20 inches or less. 2006. 2. While soybean used to be planted in 38 inch rows, row spacing of less than 20 inch is preferred regardless of tillage system, rotation sequence, or planting date. While a few studies have shown little to no response of yield to row spacing, no studies to my knowledge have shown a yield increase with wider row spacing. Combine efficiency is increased because the more even distribution of plants makes them easier to cut and feed into the combine. In spite of this advantage, row spacing preferences vary greatly across North America, and 30-inch row soybeans are common and reflect a shift in planting attitudes. If you plant corn in 20-inch rows soybeans will be planted in 20-inch rows. Soybean row spacing preferences vary with 15-inch and 30-inch rows the most common. 2006. The need for fungicide and/or insecticide applications may also impact row spacing decisions. The increasing width of planters — many are now 60 feet wide — means that splitting rows with additional units makes planters very heavy. If you plant corn in 30-inch rows you will plant soybeans in 30-inch rows. Soybean planting date can have a significant impact on yield. This demonstrates that many different considerations beyond simply yield potential can affect the best practices for each individual grower. Crop Management. Plant population and row-spacing effects on early soybean production systems in the Mid-Atlantic USA. Row Spacing. 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